The CIT is the only corporate income tax. The rates are typically around 19%. The CIT rate of 9% can, however, be applied to income other than capital gains if the taxpayer: • is a small taxpayer (i.e. a taxpayer whose sales revenue, including VAT, did not exceed the equivalent of EUR 2 million in PLN in the previous fiscal year) or • commenced business operations, if the company’s formation was not the result of a transformation or merger (in the first tax year). The lower rate does not apply to tax capital groups or to certain restructuring operations (mergers, contribution of a going concern etc.).